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Author: Thomas E. Cloete Publisher: IWA Publishing ISBN: 1843390558 Category : Science Languages : en Pages : 245
In the developed world, the connection between water, hygiene and health is taken for granted. However, for the less fortunate majority, access to potable water is non-existent and remains a daily struggle. Bacteria, viruses and parasites in contaminated water cause water borne disease. Of concern are the so-called new emerging pathogens, contributing to water borne disease, one of the biggest human tragedies, killing more than 5 million people each year. About 2.3 billion people suffer from diseases linked to contaminated water and some 6,000 people die daily as a result of this. Some 60% of all infant mortality worldwide is linked to water-related infectious and parasitic diseases. Treating water before use can eliminate most of these waterborne pathogens. The essential starting point is knowledge of the disease-causing organisms, the detection techniques, and the epidemiology, which is the focus of this book. Microbial Waterborne Pathogens provides up-to-date coverage of waterborne microbial pathogens including traditional and emerging pathogens and the latest molecular detection techniques. The link between climate and disease is covered in the book and indicates future approaches to dealing with this important area as we face the effects of global climate change All the existing and emerging pathogens including bacteria, viruses and protozoa are reviewed. The characteristics of each organism are discussed in detail as well as their epidemiology. Methods for the detection of these pathogens, traditional and new are presented. Microbial Waterborne Pathogens provides students, academics and practitioners with a complete reference book on the microbiological quality and safety of potable water.
Author: Emmanuelle Guillot Publisher: IWA Publishing ISBN: 1843391791 Category : Science Languages : en Pages : 205
Infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria, viruses and protozoa, are the most common and widespread health risk associated with drinking water. Most waterborne pathogens are introduced into drinking water supplies by human or animal faeces (enteric pathogens) but they can also exist naturally in water environments as indigenous aquatic micro-organisms. Controlling the risks related to these pathogens is a permanent challenge for the water industry. In addition to the constantly evolving range of pathogens to consider, assessing and managing such risks requires the integration of information issued by a wide range of disciplines. The necessary knowledge is however still sketchy and incomplete for most pathogens, and research efforts are necessary to fill the remaining gaps of knowledge. The purpose of this study is to provide an updated, comprehensive review of current knowledge on a selection of pathogens of interest for the drinking water industry, and to identify the remaining gaps of knowledge and thus the necessary research to be conducted. Emphasis has been laid on the information needed to assess and manage the risks related to each of these pathogens in drinking water production and distribution. The pathogens considered in this review were selected on the basis of: Their recognized or highly suspected transmission by drinking water through ingestion, inhalation, or contact Their recognized pathogenic character for humans The severity of their health effects Each micro-organism in this study is described in a summary fact sheet composed of the following items: microbiology, human health effects, geographical distribution, epidemiology, ecology, inactivation/removal, surrogates, environmental detection and research needs. Since much remains unknown about many aspects that are common to viruses, the study features a general section on virus research needs. A special section summarizes the risk management research conducted on waterborne pathogens. Finally, the conclusion gives an overview of the main gaps in current knowledge on waterborne pathogens. Visit the IWA WaterWiki to read and share material related to this title: http://www.iwawaterwiki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Articles/WaterbornePathogens
Author: National Research Council Publisher: National Academies Press ISBN: 9780309165969 Category : Nature Languages : en Pages : 328
Recent and forecasted advances in microbiology, molecular biology, and analytical chemistry have made it timely to reassess the current paradigm of relying predominantly or exclusively on traditional bacterial indicators for all types of waterborne pathogens.Â Nonetheless, indicator approaches will still be required for the foreseeable future because it is not practical or feasible to monitor for the complete spectrum of microorganisms that may occur in water, and many known pathogens are difficult to detect directly and reliably in water samples.Â This comprehensive report recommends the development and use of a â€œtool boxâ€ approach by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency and others for assessing microbial water quality in which available indicator organisms (and/or pathogens in some cases) and detection method(s) are matched to the requirements of a particular application.Â The report further recommends the use of a phased, three-level monitoring framework to support the selection of indicators and indicator approaches.Â
Author: M.N.V Prasad Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann ISBN: 0128187840 Category : Technology & Engineering Languages : en Pages : 528
Waterborne Pathogens: Detection and Treatment delivers the tools and techniques on how to identify these contaminates and apply the most effective technology for their removal and treatment. Written for researchers and practicing professionals, the book starts with a brief, but readable, review of ubiquitous waterborne pathogens (primarily viruses, bacterial and parasitic protozoa). This coverage is followed by an in-depth discussion of the latest detection and treatment technologies, ranging from Biosensors, to Nanoconjugates, Membrane Based Technologies and Nanotechnology Treatment. Engineers and scientist will find this to be a valuable reference on cutting-edge techniques for suppling safe drinking water across the globe. Explains the latest research on detection, treatment processes and remediation technologies Includes sampling, analytical and characterization methods and approaches Covers cutting-edge research, including Membrane Based Technologies, Nanotechnology Treatment Technologies and Bioremediation Treatment Technologies Provides background information regarding contamination sources
Author: American Water Works Association Publisher: American Water Works Association ISBN: 1583214038 Category : Science Languages : en Pages : 352
Updated from the 1999 edition, this manual provides critical information regarding waterborne viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens. Each pathogen is described along with its health effects, and water treatment techniques for destroying the pathogens. Also covered are cross-connection control, dead-end flushing, and hydrant flushing. This manual is intended for water operators, engineers, water quality personnel and students to learn how to monitor, sample and test waters for pathogens, optimize treatment plant performance and maintain high water quality standards. Updated from the 1999 edition, this manual provides critical information regarding waterborne viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens. Each pathogen is described along with its health effects, and water treatment techniques for destroying the pathogens. Also covered are cross-connection control, dead-end flushing, and hydrant flushing. This manual is intended for water operators, engineers, water quality personnel and students to learn how to monitor, sample and test waters for pathogens, optimize treatment plant performance and maintain high water quality standards.
Author: Helen Bridle Publisher: Academic Press ISBN: 0444643206 Category : Technology & Engineering Languages : en Pages : 426
Waterborne Pathogens: Detection Methods and Applications, Second Edition, gives an overview of advanced and emerging technologies in the detection of a range of waterborne pathogens. In addition, the book presents existing methodologies, highlights where improvements can be made, includes applications, and touches on the ways in which new technologies can be applied in water management. Finally, the book addresses issues of sample preparation (from sampling, to concentration and enrichment), a key stage in any detection protocol. Gives an overview of advanced emerging technologies in the detection of a range of waterborne pathogens Ensures the latest research developments, along with other changes in the sector, e.g., regulations and approaches are current Provides an overview of the existing approaches and key challenges before discussing sample processing and detection Presents existing methodologies and highlights where improvements can be made
Author: Timothy M. Straub Publisher: American Water Works Association ISBN: 158321514X Category : Science Languages : en Pages : 64
The water treatment industry has a long-term research interest in using molecular biology techniques for the identification of potential pathogens in drinking water supplies. The primary objective of this research was to develop deeply mutiplexed hybridization assays to simultaneously detect different pathogen groups in water.